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1. Introduction of D2 Steel
D2 steel is an air hardening, high carbon, high chrome tool steel possessing maximum wear ability and excellent stability in heat treatment. Ideal for applications requiring wear resistance
D2 Tool Steel is a versatile high-carbon, high-chromium, air-hardening tool steel that is characterized by a relatively high attainable hardness and numerous, large, chromium-rich alloy carbides in the micro-structure. These carbides provide good resistance to wear from sliding contact with other metals and abrasive materials. Although other steels with improved toughness or improved wear resistance are available, D2 provides an effective combination of wear resistance and toughness, tool performance, price, and a wide variety of product forms. Also available as an Electro-Slag-Remelted (ESR) product. The remelting process provides improved chemical homogeneity, refinement of carbide size, and the associated improvements in mechanical and fatigue properties.
2. Supply Range of D2 Steel
3. D2 steel Chemical Composition
4. D2 steel Equivalent Grades
5. AISI Grade D2 Steel Mechanical Properties
6. Thermal Properties
7. AISI/ASTM A681 D2 Grade Steel Forging
Heating for forging of AISI D2 tool steel should be done slowly and uniformly. Soak through at 1850°-1950°F and reheat as often as necessary, stopping work when the temperature drops below 1700°F(926°C). After D2 die steel forging, cool slowly in lime, mica, dry ashes or furnace. AISI D2 steel
should always be annealed after forging.
8. D2 Tool Steel Heat Treatment
1) Heat Treatment
ASTM D2 steels alloy should be preheated very slowly to 815℃ (1500°F) and then temperature can be increased to 1010oC (1850°F). They are then held at 1010oC (1850°F) for 20 to 45 minutes and air cooled (air quenched).
Annealing of D2 tool steels material should be done at 871 to 898°C (1600 to 1650°F) followed by slow furnace cooling at 4.4°C (40°F) per hour or less.after which cooling rate may be increased. Suitable precautions must be taken to prevent excessive carburization or decarburization.
3) Stress Relieving
When desirable to relieve the strains of machining, heat D2 grade steel slowly to 1050°-1250°F, allow to equalize, and then cool in still air (Strain Relieving).
4) Preheat Prior To Hardening
Preheat slowly to 1350°-1450°F and hold at this temperature until grade steel D2 material is uniformly heated.
After thorough preheating, heat to 1800°-1850°F. Hold the work piece at the hardening temperature until it is completely and uniformly heated.
AISI D2 steel tool material is an air hardening steel and will develop hardness on cooling in still air. To avoid scaling and prevent decarburization of the work piece surface, controlled atmosphere or vacuum furnaces are recommended. If these furnaces are not available, pack hardening, salt baths or wrapping the piece in stainless steel foil will provide some degree of surface protection in the hardening process. Parts should be allowed to cool to 150F, or to where they can be held in the bare hand, and then temper immediately.
The tempering temperature on material D2 steel may be varied according to the desired hardness. D2 steels can be tempered at 204°C (400°F) for achieving Rockwell C hardness of 61 and at 537°C (1000°F) for a Rockwell C hardness of 54.
9. Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) Diagram
10.Time - Temperature Transformation (TTT) Diagram
11.D2 Tool Steel Material Application
AISI grade D2 tool steels are used for long run tooling applications, where wear resistance is important, such as blanking or forming dies and thread rolling dies.
Some main applications for D2 tool steel are as below:
Blanking Dies, Forming Dies, Coining Dies, Slitting Cutters, Heading Tools, Long Punches, Forming Rolls, Edging Rolls, Master Tools, Beading Rolls, Intricate Punches, Extrusion Dies, Drawing Dies, Lamination Dies, Thread Rolling Dies, Shear Blades, Burnishing Tools, Gauges, Knurls, Wear Parts.
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